HHO - Splitting Water into Fuel
The HHO Nav above depicts EBN's first production hho dry cell electrolyzer.

6" HHO Demonstration Diplay
I recently built this 6" HHO system (March 2012) for demonstrating how easy it is to split water into fuel. The tube leaving the reservoir bubbles the hho through soapy water. The bubbles that form appear to be normal. Far from it, they are explosive! Those unfamiliar with hho are often surprised and amazed. Igniting a spoonful is amazing and fun - POP! A fist sized group of bubbles is so loud - it makes ears ring. Very quickly its clear: Water can be made into a powerful fuel.

HHO Pro's
Water can be split into the perfect fuel.
HHO is explosive, very clean, stochiametric, very versatile.
Hydrogen is stored safely in water until needed.
HHO combusts back into water.
Reported hho mileage booster gains of -8% to +20% (gains require tinkering).

HHO Con's
Currently inefficient: requires more input wattage than output hho fuel. (roughly 80% coefficient at 5.6MMW)
Storage: HHO is never safe to store.

So, You've heard of this HHO fuel thing. What's HHO all about?
Water is a very cool thing and very important to life. Did you know that water is a fuel? Well, kinda... First you have to crack the H20 into Hydrogen Gas and Oxygen Gas. These gasses together are called HHO. Did I mention that HHO was a burnable fuel, in fact HHO is explosive.
Turns out that HHO combusts so quickly that it is not just burning, The combustion of HHO is rated as an explosion. HHO's flame speed is much higher than that of gasoline. To gain an appreciation of the power of HHO - Consider that Hydrogen and Oxygen are capable of putting the Shuttle into orbit.
HHO's ratio of Hydrogen and Oxygen is perfect. When it combusts, it turns into water vapor, which condenses into water. So, The exhaust of an HHO engine is water! We need this technology. HHO puts green back in the word. HHO is the perfect fuel. HHO is green fuel for our blue planet.
HHO gurus have invested years of research and building. Now, with a simple click, you can come up to speed in minutes, on decades of discovery. If you embark into HHO research and testing, PLEASE BE SAFE! Remember, HHO is explosive. Never store hho.

HHO Introduction

What's Electrolysis?
Electrolysis is the process of using electricity to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. Typically we seek hydrogen gas or oxygen gas. When both are bubbled up and collected together - we create a burnable fuel.

What's HHO?
The combination of hydrogen gas (H2) and oxygen gas (O2) together is called HHO. It is also known as oxyhydrogen and Brown's Gas. HHO is fuel. Burning HHO creates water vapor, in other words - water! HHO is a very green fuel.

What's a Mileage Booster?
An electrolysis device is called an electrolyzer cell, booster cell, or HHO generator. When the HHO is piped into the air intake, the engine burns it as fuel. Using water for fuel reduces normal fuel consumption; However, boosting draws from the alternator (engine power). So, mileage gains are a subject of debate. We have observed gains from -8% to +20%. There are no guarantees & each vehicle responds differently. Expect to tinker to achieve higher mileage gains.

Is Hydrogen Safe?
Yes and No. Hello, We are dealing with explosive gasses! Use extreme caution in testing and adhere to safety guidelines in your builds. Be Safe! Property damage or serious injury may occur. Storing hydrogen, like any other fuel, is generally considered an unsafe practice. However, HHO must never be stored. If sparked, HHO is able to detonate inside the sealed storage container. Do not allow HHO to accumulate. By design, incorporate flash venting into HHO equipment. Self-sealing flash ports, flashback suppressors, bubblers, and engine-on power switching are core components to a safe HHO booster system.

What's HOD?
Hydrogen on Demand is amazing! When we need fuel, water can be fractured and used immediately. HOD eliminates all the safety issues concerning hydrogen storage. How? Hydrogen is locked safely in water until we need it! The cost savings and safety gains of HHO on demand are important and easily overlooked. Many advancing H2 technologies only want the revenue from delivery, storage, and pumping sales. When water is safe, Why store something dangerous? With the rising costs of fuel, water is attractive. Hydrogen on Demand is becoming a household concept. For your fuel needs, consider creating HHO from water.

Why use Stainless Steel?
Many conductive metals corrode, inside the electrolyzer environment. Stainless Steel resists corrosion. Stainless Steel grade 304 is the minimum standard. Stainless Steel grade 316L is recommended for high quality electrolyzers.

What's Electrolyte?
Pure water does not conduct electricity. Adding a base to the water creates an electrolytic solution and increases conductivity, allowing electrolysis to occur. Distilled water and KOH is the preferred electrolyte (KOH is preferable to NaOH). KOH flakes or caustic potash is still available and ships online.

HHO Basics

What's a Container Cell?
Previously, the common cell design was a container cell. Stainless plates or tubes were submerged into an outer container. Container cells suffer from severe voltage leaks and lower efficiency.

Why use Neutral Plates?
Car batteries are 12 volts. Alternators are about 14 volts. Target plate voltage is about 2.2 volts. Overdriving plates wastes energy, creates unwanted heat, and leaches chromium. Adding neutral plates between electrode plates divides the voltage down and dramatically increases efficiency. We researched and proved that using neutral plate technology doubled efficiency. Ironhead's open source s-cell gets popular and D3 establishes the 4.3 MMW efficiency milestone. Neutral plate efficiency is standard in the public domain after 2007.

Efficiency -vs- Output
The controls for raising HHO output are: greater plate surface area, stronger electrolyte solution, thinner gaskets, and less neutral plates! Two electrode [12 volt] boosters are only 1.0 MMW Novices quickly learn that even small cells can draw 70 amps. In most cases, Efficiency is far more important than output volume. This becomes critical when seeking mileage boosting gains. The ultimate prerequisite and drive for efficiency comes in researching the self-running hho engine. The factors for raising efficiency are: more steel (higher ss cost), more neutral plates (bell curve), no voltage leaks (holes in plates), lower elyte bonding energy {on the periodic chart - notice Potassium (K) is more efficient than Sodium (Na)}. It took years of research to bring you this list!

D3 developed a measurement standard to allow dissimilar cell designs to be analyzed and compared with out saying it looks like this one has more bubbles. Really - it was a problem! MMW efficiency output (milliliters per minute per watt) allows any cell to be compared directly to any other cell or design. Divide the hho output produced in a minute (ml) by the watts used in that minute (w). Thus, ml/w = MMW rating. If people do not have a cell MMW rating - you probably should not purchase from them. Whether being slippery or just ignorant, there are better people to work with. Further problems where identified with MMW. Two electrode cells at 12 volts create steam in the hho. This was refined by temperature adjusting the hho to room temperature. Warm hho or hot hho with water vapor erroneously scores higher in MMW, temperature adjusting to cold hho (STP) is a more accurate MMW rating.

Dry Cell
The term dry cell referring to a hho electrolyzer came about in discussion while helping others to understand the difference between wet container cells (voltage leaks) and the plate / gasket stack efficiency advantage. "The outside of the plate edges are dry not wet." "The cell is dry on the outside - the water is on the inside" PFN explained to Lefty. From then on, the dry cell name stuck as a way to quickly describe this new endplate/plate/gasket assembly to those only familiar with container cells. Some have aversion to the dry cell name. Are they suffering from NIHS (not invented here syndrome)? The dry cell name rode in with the efficiency milestone of 4.3 MMW to 5.6 MMW! Note that EBN did not invent the dry cell (perhaps re-invent). Our efforts made the most efficient cell design, popular, open source, and standard into the public domain. Quietly changing the world is good. Dry cells became the industry standard after 2008.

Internal Bolting
Early dry cells had simple square plates and external bolting. Only large production runs allow for the complexity, regularity, and cost averaging - of bolt holes to be included in plates and gaskets. Internal bolting reduces perimeter size and aligns the plates /gaskets on cell assembly & during use. Prototype builds are still usually external bolted. Internal bolting is just cool... to a nerd- ha! EBN's decision to include the cost for internal bolting in our early production run was bold. Internal bolting designs become the worldwide standard after 2008.

Plate Preparation
Some have claimed plate preparation can lead to higher MMW. There is no confirmed evidence of this via team EBN members. Plate preparation can affect amp draw and higher outputs. Media blasting causes more surface area and amp draw - thus, output. Passivation with citric acid is a subject of discussion. Some swear by it - data is required. Eventually, plates self-condition in the electrolyzer environment over time. Cell impurities leave with the first elyte change or deposit on the plate surfaces. The patina surface layer is helpful to production. Note that oils and plastic debris continue to flow throughout the elyte system with little effect on production.

Outdoor Cell Freezing Conditions
Isopropyl alcohol can lower the freezing point of electrolyte with out adverse effect to cell production. It will evaporate out of the cell over time and needs to be maintained during winter periods. There is no negative aspect to running a frozen cell - electrically speaking. Electricity causes it to heat and thaw - is all. This assumes there is no damage to the cell from freeze expansion. If leaks mysteriously occur - is it winter? Perhaps the cell froze solid at some point. Re-tightening the bolts when thawed should fix. Gasket replacement may be required.

Microbubble / Foaming
Those actively pumping elyte reported microbubble saturation and production loss. Larger elyte reservoirs are required or slowing the pumping rates. Foaming can be a problem also. If some form of cell contamination, changing the elyte should fix it. Some find temporary solution by adding a pinhead amount of dawn dish detergent. Anti-foaming agents may also work - unsure of impact to production. The electrolytic environment is wicked, and breaks down most compounds into base elements, nullifying special properties. Foaming is best taken care of by draining the elyte! If this is unsuccessful, that leaves finding and removing the element causing the issue (gaskets, tanks, hoses, sealants, etc...).

What is Neutral Stacking?
It is likely that neutral stacking parallel config plate stacks increases efficiency above that of the standard neutral plate configurations. Neutral stacking is not easily understood. It is best shown through inter-connecting several standard parallel dry cells. The outside dry cells each have a single connection back to the power source. The inner cells are daisy chained together: each with a neutral wire to the next. Let's say that each parallel dry cell has 20 plates. Normally, 10 plates would have a (+) connection to the power source, and the other 10 plates would have a (-) connection to the power source. With neutral stacking configuration the first parallel dry cell has 10 plates connecting back to the power source but the other 10 plates are neutral wired to the next cell! So, 20 plates are wired together, 10 in each adjacent dry cell, on a neutral buss. 'Electrically' -They are all the same piece of metal!

What does Neutral Stacking do?
This normalizes the voltage for 20 plates. Fact: Typical neutral pair voltages range: higher & lower. We believe this represents loss / inefficiency. Theory supports that normalizing the voltage of whole plates stacks through neutral stacking - raises efficiency for higher MMW scores!

Why is Neutral Stacking important?
Parallel cells have greater MMW, but vehicles don't have 2 volts, thus the standard vehicle dry cell is a neutral configuration. Neutral Stacking combines the MMW of parallel cell configuration with the flexibility of neutral plate voltage division. Neutral Stacking for use of line voltage is yet untested - as it requires 70 dry cells.

HHO Configuration

Let's refresh our nomenclature
Electrode Plate: Plate with (+) or (-) electrical connection.
Neutral Plate: (n) Plate to divide voltage- no wiring connection.
Neutral Group: (nnnn)(-nnnn+) Consecutive neutral plates, may or may not include electrodes, depending on context.

Vehicle Configurations
Example of (4n4) 21 plate config: (-nnnn+nnnn-nnnn+nnnn-) [12 volt].
Example of (4n7) 36 plate config: (-nnnn+nnnn-nnnn+nnnn-nnnn+nnnn-nnnn+) [12 volt].

Other Configs for mental exercise
Example of (4n2) 11 plate config: (-nnnn+nnnn-) [12 volt].
Example of (5n2) 13 plate config: (-nnnnn+nnnnn-) [12 volt].
Example of (11n1) 13 plate config: (-nnnnnnnnnnn+) [24 volt].

Parallel -vs- Series
Example of Parallel Cell 11 plate config: (-+-+-+-+-+-) [2 volts] [WARNING: 12 volts overdrives!].
Example of Series Cell 11 plate config: (-nnnn+nnnn-) [12 volt].

Line Voltage Configuration
110 volts AC - bridge rectify & (3.0+UF) capacitor to: 155 volts DC.
Note: Use electrical caution, 155 volts DC may cause a permanent health condition....

"Twin Cell" (2x)(34n1) two 36 plate cells (recommended!)
Attach power leads to outer (-)(+) plates. Jumper inner electrode plates (+)(-) so they act as 1 neutral, connecting both cells in series.

"Big Dog" (69n1) 71 plate cell (overall - not recommended!)
Monster cells tend to leak. Not recommended, only Tim the Tool Man would be proud of you.

HHO Extreme

HHO Engine
Research into HHO Fuel and an HHO Engine continues. We are trying to grasp and quantify attributes of the perfect engine. Obviously, the more attributes we can include into our engine design the more efficient the engine. Efficiency of a gasoline engine is increased by: direct injection, auto-detonation compression ratios, turbocharging, running only at optimum RPM. But hho has peculiar properties that defy logic. In order to build the perfect engine for hho, we must develop a better understanding of the properties and strengths of hho.

Fuel of Choice
Gasoline is preferred to Diesel. Propane is preferred to Gasoline. HHO is preferred to Propane or any other fuel. HHO is the perfect fuel. In order to take advantage of the increasing ability of each fuel, More engine requirements are needed. But when engine to fuel type is evenly matched, new efficiencies are realized. Creating an evenly matched engine for HHO is uncharted. If anyone has done it, they're not sharing.

Gasoline Generator Milestone
The first that we know of to run gasoline generators completely on HHO is Smart ScareCrow & D3adpOO1. They each posted YouTube videos. We believe this was underestimated in its importance. This is a huge HHO milestone! There is much controversy concerning HHO mileage boosting. Mileage booster scammers gave HHO a bad rep. However, Running generators on HHO proves this technology. HHO is very real fuel.

Gasoline Generator Mods
The other shoe is about to fall- ready? Who would have thought that gasoline generators could run completely on HHO without engine modification? We were expecting serious engine modification just to get them to idle on HHO. I know this aspect was not grasped by most viewers on the debut. This is a testament of the versatility and viability of HHO fuel.

Advanced Electrolysis Theory
D3 deserves credit for his work on the advanced electrolysis theory. His efforts detail & explain the new .5 MMW milestone gain. D3's secret sause is trade information and will likely find application only in a closed loop HHO engine. This may be disclosed when we have substantial working prototypes.

HHO Cell Builds

When we learn that water can become fuel, and that we can do it at home, we get excited about HHO devices.
A first build might look like this:

A 'Bazooka' Cell
Our first build was a container cell. I used 4" ABS sewer pipe for a container. I bought (20) 3" x 12" stainless steel plates grade 304. The pipe was quite tall 36", which I found out later is dangerous (HHO volume space) and yet safe (ABS pipe is strong). Fortunately, I never flashed this cell.
Strengths: Configurable, Strong, Sealed -vs- Open, Measurable Outputs, Shows our ability to Concept, Design & Build, we learned so much!
Weaknesses: The list is long by today's standards, It was a great start into HHO. Main weakness is Unsafe, but so much ahead of a Glass Grenade!

Freedom Cell
My Second build was also a container cell. I used acrylic & epoxy to make the container. The epoxy failed, use Weldon solvent.
Strengths: Safe - Flash Vent Spring Tension Lid, Configurable, Small and Sealed for Accurate Lab Output Testing, Significant Testing and Verification Accomplished, Again shows my ability to Concept, Design & Build.
Weaknesses: Nothing significant- great build for a container cell (Voltage Leaks).

Freedom II Cell
My third build was a dry cell. I used 1/2" acrylic end plates, o-ring gaskets, and c-clamps. The o-ring gaskets failed (leakage). Sent the word out - must have compression gaskets.
Strengths: Configurable, Rallied Focus upon Dry Technology, Helped establish Dry Cell Design and Efficiency.
Weaknesses: Failed Build, but we learn- so much from failures!
Note: Later added round Freedom III gaskets for demonstration cell (see photo), never tested outputs.

Freedom III Cell
My fourth build, also a dry cell, was good enough to be considered an alpha candidate for production. I used 1/2" acrylic end plates, off the shelf round gaskets, and external bolting w/ clear vinyl tubing. Much testing and verification done with this cell.
Strengths: Awesome Build, Configurable, Solid Data (5.6 warm MMW, 4n4 config), Further motivated team towards dry cells and EBN Inc.
Weaknesses: Round gaskets reduce active surface area, 1/8" gasket thickness - 1/16" is Standard, Oversized Plate Holes (Voltage Leaks.)

Freedom Max Cell
This 5th build measured a total voltage seal test. Sorry no photo of this important build (rebuild of Freedom II cell). I used 1/2" acrylic end plates, special 7" 304 plates, 7" remnant gaskets, and external bolts in clear vinyl tubing. Only one test matrix (Thanks to D3 & measuring equipment), but it was one of significance.
Strengths: Maximum Brute Force Electrolysis MMW established (KOH, only +.2 MMW).
Weaknesses: Not designed for production (cost prohibited).
Note: I stopped building cells & researching brute force efficiency gains with the discovery from this significant build, test results, and minimal gain. We have arrived.
Note: I believe further efficiency advances will likely come from pulsing technologies. There may be small gains in researching plate passivation and stronger elyte ratios.

HHO Welder

The HHO welder project started with a concept of: (single, twin, or quad) cells for (Jeweler, Home, or Commercial) welding respectively. The Jewelers single cell to be powered by a 12 volt battery and charger. The Home HHO Welder twin cell to be powered by line voltage. The Commercial quad welder to be powered by 220 service. When brainstorming for a cart or some type of enclosure, I came across the idea of mounting into the bottom of a roll around tool chest. Mobility plus drawer storage in a cost effective and very available form factor. This photo was taken near the beginning of the project.
Twin EBN 8" HHO Generators form the foundation for our HHO welder prototype. These are the most efficient HHO Generators on the market today. With 20 amp line voltage, this configuration will easily produce 1-10 LPM and may top out as high as 13-15 LPM. I will post accurate LPM when the project is finished and data points are established.
HHO flows out of the top of the cells and into the elyte reservoir separator. These are taller than the normal 8" (PL42K) reservoirs. The custom height is matched to the tool chest compartment height.
HHO flows out of the top of the separator and into the bottom of the bubbler res. Both reservoirs feature FlashPort safety venting. The bubbler tank is hard mounted though the side of the tool cabinet with PVC fittings.
These fittings, on the outside of the cabinet, form the clear tube - elyte level indicator. HHO travels upward. The hose & torch tip attach at the brass fitting.
This is also the electrolyte low point and serves as a great location for a drain. System drains are very handy. I recommend them on every HHO system design.
Line voltage or 110 service powers the system. We start with a cord and plug that can handle 20 Amps. AC power is switched with a mounted 20 Amp on/off switch. Switched AC travels down the conduit and into the bottom area.
Our switched AC enters from the right and connects to the bridge rectifier. Whenever the power switch is on, the bridge rectifies AC to pulsing DC. The SSR (Solid State Relay) forms our means of control. A 5LB pressure switch, which mounts into the bubbler, controls when the SSR is on. The bridge & SSR are mounted to a heat sink. The heat sink acts as the lid to the junction box. I am bending and holding the wires down to reveal the components and get this photo. The capacitor mounts inside the adjacent box.
The role of the capacitor is to smooth the pulsating 110 volt DC. This process also has the added advantage of raising the voltage to 155 volts DC. Service varies around the country. At my home it measures 170 volts. Most survive contact with 110 AC. However, Rectifying to DC and adding the cap make it deadly. Please use caution wherever those wires are exposed during operation. You might not get a second chance to learn safe habits.
This is the most recent photo. More progress was made on this prototype. And then I gutted it for use on the HHO Flyer. So much to do, so little time... Something has to be on the back burner... and this list is long. The cells are currently serving on D3's torch cart. I'm now leaning towards the simple power switch approach (-vs- SSR pressure regulated). These builds are easy to finish (the power switch mounted on the side would have been sufficient). Harbor Freight Tools has a good (plastic keyed) battery cut off switch for 12 volt battery systems. Look for it in the coming hho demonstration display build.

HHO History (PFN's MMW Version)

Nov 2008: D3 scores 5.7 temperature adjusted MMW. Note: If you feel you can repeatedly score a higher temperature adjusted MMW, please contact D3 for verification.
Oct 2008: D3 invents advanced electrolysis theory: D3 nominated for EBN Nobel prize for his contribution.
Oct 2008: H2inIce verifies .2 MMW gain in total sealed cell.
Oct 2008: D3's maximum MMW test on Freedom II 7" cell - 5.4 adjusted MMW (only plus .2 MMW).
Oct 2008: PFN reincarnates Freedom II 7" cell (now w/gaskets) "All Voltage Leaks Sealed".
Oct 2008: PFN & D3 discuss advantages and costs of total sealed cell designs.
Note: I believe maximum temperature adjusted MMW is 5.2 on a 6" EBN 4N4 configured dry cell.
Aug 2008: EBN's First Assembled Production cell (64N4K, my 6th build).
Jul 2008: PFN's EBN beta prototype 6" cell, using pre-production 6" plates (64N4K, my 5th build).
Jun 2008: D3's 316L pre-production 6" plate run.
May 2008: Lefty's EBN beta prototype 8" cell (84N4K).
May 2008: Lefty's 316L pre-production 8" plate run.
May 2008: Decision is made to form EBN.
Apr 2008: PFN's Freedom III cell: beta prototype 7" cell (my 4th build, 5.6 warm MMW).
Note: Temperature adjusting HHO (& steam content) required for higher standard of MMW ratings.
Note: Some claim breaking 7.0 & even 8.0 MMW.
Note: In this period, many BFT members build dry cells and break 5.0 & 6.0 MMW.
Sep 2007: Sid Young breaks 5.0 barrier (Sid's dry cell, beta prototype 7" plates, 5.1 MMW).
Sep 2007: PFN's 316L beta prototype 7" plate run.
Sep 2007: PFN's Freedom II cell: alpha 7" prototype cell (my 3rd build, O-ring gaskets - failure).
Sep 2007: Zero's Z-cell (sealed series wet cell, gets popular on YouTube, MMW climbs to high 4's)
Sep 2007: BFT Team discussion of best plate design - version drawings by Sid Young.
Sep 2007: PFN's private 304 alpha prototype 7" plate run.
Sep 2007: PFN & Sid Young discuss welder photo - leads to dry cell initial plate design.
Sep 2007: Sid sees photo of HHO welder with dry cells.
Sep 2007: PFN sees photo of HHO welder with dry cells.
Aug 2007: PFN sees photo of Ausie dry cell.
Aug 2007: "Seal Voltage Leaks" Battle cry sounded to team.
Aug 2007: PFN's Freedom cell (my 2nd build, 2.x? MMW).
Aug 2007: D3 breaks 4.0 barrier (4.3 MMW).
Aug 2007: PFN joins BFT.
Aug 2007: IronHead starts BFT Forum - Bulding For Tomorrow.
Jul 2007: PFN joins OU.com.
Jul 2007: D3 (D3adp00l) invents MMW standard (dissimiliar cells and outputs, now easily compared).
May 2007: John Aaron's parallel cell (Hydrogen Tap, gets popular on YouTube, 1.x? MMW).
Apr 2007: PFN's Bazooka cell (my 1st build, 1.x? MMW).
Mar 2007: IronHead's S-cell (series wet cell, gets popular on OU.com, 2.x? MMW)
Jun 2006: Tero's dry cell. [good efficiency but not popular]
Early 2006: Frosty's dry cell (name changed, OU.com). [good efficiency but not popular]
2005: PFN searches internet with keyword 'hydrogen'.
1979: PFN learns about electrolysis in High School Biology.
1950's: Russian HHO dry cell patient.
1909: Westinghouse Atomic Torche patent.

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